The Insect-Populated Mind: how insects have influenced the evolution of consciousness
"In this book author David Spooner proposes a close connection between aspects of insect evolution and the human intellect. By examining seemingly disparate subjects - entomology, language history, genetics, literature and music - Spooner shows how such a synthesis is possible. Once this fusion is achieved, the human species can be seen as connected not just to the great apes, but also via consciousness to metamorphic insects. The book also presents aguments on the roots and nature of the mind in the work of Daniel Dennett and Terrence Deacon."
UPDATE: CAUSAL DYNAMICAL TRIANGULATION AND METAPHYSICS
In my first book, THE METAPHYSICS OF INSECT LIFE (1995), I had hazarded the observation that the dialectic of the numbers three and four was a recurrent pattern in nature and in human life. This was based primarily upon analyses of biological and artistic events. So when I read recently of triangulation within four dimensions as a possible new solution to the problem of unifying the laws of gravity and quantum physics, my antennae twitched and probed. Causal dynamical triangulation - as it is rather clumsily entitled as a competitor to simply `string theory` - constructs spacetime geometries from simple triangular structures. These are networks of microscopic volumes which coalesce to form the 4-dimensional world of our fourdimmansions, as James Joyce put it familiarly.
Firstly, I must repeat briefly some of the arguments in my Metaphysics. The overall theory of the book depends upon processes of insect development related to human intellectual endeavours. A nub here is the relationship between a key cluster of words. Norman O. Brown`s LOVE`S BODY had drawn attention to some linguistic threads from Descartes:
“Larva means mask; or ghost. Larvatus, masked, a personality - larvatus prodeo (Descartes); it also means mad, a case of demoniacal possession. Larva is also `the immature form of animals characterized by metamorphosis`; in the grub state; before their transformation into a pupa, or pupil; i.e. before their initiation.”
If we add in the origins of the insect in ovum and the final creature in imago, which the Greeks named psyche, there is fourfold spiral of maturation.
So in the metamorphic insects, there is the following evolution:
from ovum, egg
to larva, grub, caterpillar
then pupa or chrysalis
and finally the imago - butterfly, bee, moth, wasp or beetle.
This is the full mutation, entitled the holometabolic. But there is another form - the hemimetabolic, which historically preceded the complete differentiation between caterpillar and butterfly. In this other form, the nymph is not unlike the completed imago and proceeds by slow mutation. Its progress is threefold, and it is characteristic of other insects such as grasshoppers.
So we have two types of metamorphosis in insects. One is gradual and triple in nature, and the other is tetradic, with abrupt leaps and changes of shape. These two processes of maturation among humans are the key to understanding the dynamics of identity not only in the postmodern technological world, but in the great works of literature and music as I summarize below. (Please see my THE INSECT-POPULATED MIND (2005 for a full exposition).
Now does all this have any connection with human culture, remote as the world of insects appears?
A symphony is a sonata for orchestra with, normally, four movements.
In the 1st movement, themes are stated. The opening is like an egg hatching, revealing in embryo the motifs that will be dramatised in the course of the four movements.
The second movement usually proceeds slowly - like a caterpillar. A larva lives only to eat and, as in Beethoven`s Eroica for example, the music proceeds at a stately pace gorging itself on the central motifs. It is providing the fuel for the dynamic energy of its later growth when it will have to turn its back on this early period in order to release the imaginal buds that will bring about the perfected insect - or in this case symphony.
The 3rd movement is rapid, febrile, anticipating final release. It is the sonar equivalent of the shimmering chrysalis of nature, trembling with incipient being and resolution. There is a sense of rising excitement as in the scherzo of the Eroica.
The 4th is the climax which, as Berlioz wrote of Beethoven, “leads from tension to release, from compulsion to liberation, from the tragic to the joyous.”
The great philosopher of music, Schopenhauer, followed the structure in his The World as Will and Representation. As Thomas Mann put it in his essay: "I have often called his great work a symphony in four movements; and in the third, devoted to the `object of art,` he celebrates music as no other thinker has ever done, ascribing to her a quite special place, not beside but above the other arts, because she is not like them, the image of the phenomenon, but immediately the image of the will itself, and thus to all the physical of the world she depicts the metaphysical, to all appearance the thing itself." (from Essays of Three Decades)
Thus Schopenhauer solves the problem of Kant`s unknowable ding-an-sich, and posthumously reduces much modernist academic speculation to irrelevance, lacking as it does the concentration and span of the Danzig (Gdansk) philosopher.
And then there is Shakespeare. Although intellects as varied as George Steiner and Goethe have characterized him as an unruly genius, his intuitive nature reveals an instinctively structured evolution parallel to that of the metamorphic insect world. As Byron put it: “Shakespeare led a life of Allegory; his works are the comments on it.”
1. The egg is the 4 central History plays - Henry VI, parts 1,2,3, together with Richard III.
2. The larval or caterpillar phase is made up of the 4 so-called Problem Plays -
Much Ado about Nothing, Troilus and Cressida, Measure for Measure, All`s Well that Ends Well.
3. The pupal stage is constituted by the 4 great tragedies: Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, King Lear. This transitional moment in a holometabolic metamorphic insect`s life is also a time of dying, when the early cells are killed off to prepare for the imago birth.
4. The perfect creature. This is found especially in The Tempest, but as part of a cluster of the 4 Last Plays, including Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter`s Tale.
How does all this square with the science of the universe?
Let us look at the Big Bang. It engendered a series of quaternal explosions. In brief:
helium - 4 coalesces with another helium-4
then beryllium -8 picks up another helium -4
until carbon - 12
As the Big Bang unfolds, helium-3 picks up a further neutron to balance its two protons, and creates the catalyst for the formation of helium-4. The collision in turn of helium-4 nuclei gives rise to the unstable beryllium-8 through the triple-alpha process, and then a further interaction with helium-4 opens the way for the emergence of the carbon and oxygen which will, in time, be crucial for life on earth. When carbon-12 is struck by another helium-4, oxygen results.
There can be no life without the 4 electrons found in the L shell of the carbon atom, giving carbon a valence of 4. This enables it to combine with a hydrogen atom to form the hydrocarbon molecule methane (CH4), which is one of the simplest organic molecules. Before the formulation of the quantum theory by Planck, and its application to the structure of atoms by Bohr, the nature of chemical bonds between two atoms could not be explained. It is in fact the quantitized symmetry that allows atoms to coalesce to form complex organic molecules. Carbon is of special significance because the number of electrons in its outer shell is just 4, which is half the number permitted in that shell. So carbon can absorb up to 4 electrons, and also lose the same number.
To return to the Big Bang: in Population-II stars the nuclei whose atomic weights are multiples of 4 are favored because 4 is the atomic weight of He4, which plays the dominant role in heavy element build-up. Population-I stars are formed from a chemical mixture that already contains heavy nuclei. Since these can capture protons in addition to He4 nuclei, the restriction to nuclei whose atomic weights are multiples of 4 is finally removed. At this point freedom in the sense of a certain randomness has replaced direct necessity.
There are further key numerical details from the scientific data.
1. Minkowski`s theory which opened the way for Einstein`s advances was based in absolute 4-dimensional space-time, which replaced Newton`s flat 3-dimensional Euclidean space.
2. There are 4 known Forces regulating the universe - gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.
3. Classes of compounds essential to life are 4 - nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.
4. DNA has the 4 bases of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine.
5. RNA likewise has 4 bases, with thymine replaced by uracil.
6. The 90% of DNA that is apparently non-functional (i.e. that does not code for proteins) has a sequence of 33 sub-units repeated 4 times. This quaternal repetition is found time and again in DNA.
7. Hemoglobin is formed from 4 amino acid chains.
8. Nucleotides have 4 constituents.
9. In the genetically archetypal fly drosophila melanogaster, there are 4 pairs of chromosomes, and at each cell division during the development of the egg into the adult, the chromosomes are reproduced so that each cell in the adult body resembles the fertilized egg in having two similar sets of 4 chromosomes.
10. The cerebrum of the human brain has 4 paired and major lobes of its own, and under this forebrain the remainder is similarly of 4 parts.
By way of concise recapitulation - from Eastern thought to Western music via language elements:
SYMPHONY 1st movement - motifs are stated
4 ASRAMAS brahmacarya - disciplines & education
2nd movement slow -like a caterpillar
garhasthya - life of householder &active citizen
scherzo - febrile and anticipatory
vanaprasthya - retreat for loosening of bonds
finale - resolution and celebration of themes
sannyasa - life of the hermit
These structures may be thought of as reverberating upwards and outwards from the poet who most perceptively diagnosed the problem of human life -
Robert Browning who defined the world as a place “man partly is and wholly hopes to be” in `A Death in the Desert`, and earlier “man is not Man as yet” in Book 5 of Paracelsus. These perhaps relates to Thoreau`s observation that "The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation," (for which see my book on the metaphors of human and insect metamorphosis in `Walden`.)
The Scottish poet Hugh MacDiarmid took the English poet as his intellectual springboard in his early `Annals of the Five Senses` and wrote that
“he held with Browning the great central liberal feeling, a belief in a certain destiny for the human spirit beyond and perhaps even independent of, our sincerest convictions, and could not see
`What purpose serves the soul or world it tries
Conclusions with, unless the fruit of victories
Stay one and all stored up and guaranteed its own
For ever by some mode whereby shall be made known
The gain of every life.`”
MacDiarmid is the twentieth century poet of greatest questing intellectual rigor, who in his last poem, `In Memoriam James Joyce: Towards a Vision of World Language`, concluded dramatically -
“There lie hidden in language elements that effectively combined
Can utterly change the nature of man.”
FROM APULEIUS TO A.R. WALLACE: EVOLUTIONARY THEORY AND
SOME LITERARY ANIMALS AND INSECTS
Reitzenstein has made a useful distinction between fabula and historia, where the latter is a cultivated and consciously literary product and the fabula an oral tale, or imitation of one.(1) However it is a feature of the finest contemporary writing that it treats the distinction with the greatest flexibility. So Gabriel García Márquez frequently fuses the two. His A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings relates the frustration of a rural community at the arrival of a perhaps-angel, a perhaps-vulture of death, or simply a perhaps-fraud. But at the end when the old man`s wings have recovered sufficiently for him to leave the village, he is apprehensively watched away by a peasant who is relieved “he was no longer an annoyance in her life but an imaginary dot on the horizon of the sea.”(2) The community prefers its own stoic ethic to a saviour or outside mores. Márquez`s Macondo has succeeded Faulkner`s Yoknapatawpha in directing one branch of contemporary fiction towards what Salman Rushdie has defined as the elevation of “the world-view above the urban one; this is the source of his fabulism.”(3)
Approaching this from the diametrically opposite perspective, George Eliot`s Casaubon was thoroughly, and damagingly, contemptuous of “the fable of
Cupid and Psyche, which is probably the romantic invention of a literary period, and cannot, I think, be reckoned as a genuine mythical product.”(4) Such
an attitude to created fable is not uncommon outside fiction also, and a disabling genre purity is characteristic of much Western European criticism.
But William Blake had already grasped the achievement of Apuleius:
“Apuleius`s Golden Ass & Ovid`s Metamorphoses & others of like kind are Fable; yet they contain Vision in a sublime degree, being derived from real Vision in More ancient Writings.”(5)
And later Coleridge looked on The Golden Ass as “a sort of hybrid Poetry — Like the rough Copies of Hints taken down by a Poet,” a hybrid writing which
overthrew the rigidity of informative genres on the one hand and burlesque on the other to create the preconditions for the short story.(6) The North African`s Logic offers a prescription of method sorely neglected today. His talisman approach is “to present broad things in a narrow way, narrow things in a broad way, ordinary things in a becoming way, new things in a familiar way, familiar things in a new way.”(7) I hope to have shown by the end of this chapter that Blake`s appreciation of Apuleius (and indeed Ovid) was neither entirely unconnected with significant series of paroles, nor with the fourfold root of the poet`s Prophetic Books.
The metamorphosis theme does not play a great part in The Fabillis of Henryson. It was rather that, as Edwin Muir remarked, he “lived near the end of
a great age of settlement, religious, intellectual and social” and “exists in that long calm of storytelling which ended with the Renaissance, when the agreement about the great story was broken.”(8) Shakespeare is the great disruptor who bestrides that chasm and in what André Chénier called “ces convulsions barbares,”(9) metaphorically fused the old universalism and the encroaching individualism. The giant shadow of Shakespeare has seriously obscured the dimensions of a tradition that runs, in barest outline, from Aesop and Apuleius via the Roman de Renart and Henryson through La Fontaine into
the twentieth century with Masefield`s grossly underestimated anti-War fable,Reynard the Fox and Dylan Thomas`s ritual and fabulous tales, as far as Kafka and Nabokov. Apuleius had already pessimistically concluded in On the God of
Socrates — “we men are the principal animated things, though most of us,through the neglect of training, are so depraved...through having nearly quite abandoned the mildness of our nature, that it may seem there is not an animal on earth more vile than man.”(10) The moralitas of a Henryson fable can more comfortably be accomodated to a confident and medieval sense of human proportion, one in which the allegorical pattern of animal behaviour does not have the dangerous penetration of daily life present in Kafka`s The Metamorphosis.
The problem is that animals follow a single line of development once on the road of growth. (The clouded tiger salamander is a complex exception, along
with frogs). Insects, however, can metamorphose, destroying their former selves and rebuilding new identities. In Apuleius, there is a multiple structure
in which the ethical lesson is entirely organic, partly at least because the morality has to be genuinely fought for within a fable where the type of
transformations of identity resemble those of an insect, rather than animal. The first translator of The Golden Ass, William Aldington, warned that it may seem“a mere jest and fable,” but that it is “a figure of man`s life...a pattern to regenerate [men`s] minds from brutal and beastly custom.”(11) This is declared in the spirit that Keats characterized Shakespeare as leading “a life like the scriptures figurative” which in its allegory and mystery “people can no more
make out than they can the Hebrew Bible.” Likewise the Apuleian paradigm creates itself from precisely that extreme eclecticism and frequent reversal of style that Ben Edwin Perry had found deficient.(12) It is the product of Apuleius`s instinctive imagination, what Perry reduced to “the fancy of the moment.”(13)
This impulsiveness leads to a certain unevenness of style and a tendency to stray or even contradict himself; but it is this spontaneous method that allows
the metamorphic shape to emerge.
Apuleius stands at the crossroads of pagan and Christian civilization, as Pater`s Marius the Epicurean dramatizes. Merkelbach insists that The Golden Ass belongs to those works that are “alles Mysterientexte.”(14) But while taking on board this intent, Edgar Wind`s description of the mixed nature of the ancient grottesche is also central:
“Addressing the devout in a foolish spirit, these calculated freaks represented to perfection what Pico della Mirandola had defined as the Orphic disguise: the art of interweaving the divine secrets with the fabric of fables, so that anyone reading those hymns `would think they contained nothing but the sheerest takes and trifles,` nihil subesse credat fabellas nugasque meracissimas.”(15)
This sly strategy is of a piece with the shifting identities of his character. For there is surely an association carried over from the Lucian Onos between onos and onoma, between donkey and name. To adapt Carlos Fuentes, Hermes “circulates names as if they were money and robs them of their permanence,which is the same as their essence,” and this has spread to the names in The Golden Ass where “the number of nameless roles...far exceeds the named.”(16) So
Lucius can metamorphose into Apuleius himself in Chapter XI without disturbing the underlying unity of the book. Moravia has pointed to the source
of the framentation of character as the pressure of an early mass society,(17) and the namelessness of so many expresses the already modern precariousness of
individual identity in its development. It is as an anonymous and abused beast of burden that Lucius learns the sufferings of the exploitative world until his author rescues him to share the privileged, and expensive, initiations of Isis which are to re-establish his humanity on firmer foundations.
In the tale at the heart of the transformatory adventure, one critic has seen the very name `Psyche` as the mainspring turning “the household tale into a
beautiful narrative.”(18) At first sight this may seem an extravagant claim, but taken together with the overall structure of the book, proves indeed to be
a key word and concept. The relative proximity to its folkloric origins allows the ordinary and extraordinary to merge in Apuleius`s idiosyncratic but radical Platonism. The Scottish Lowland tale Three Feathers has, like its Hanoverian equivalent, many similarities to the Cupid and Psyche interlude in The Golden Ass. A girl is married to a husband she has never seen, and on lighting a candle she reveals him to be especially handsome. “But scarcely had she seen him when he began to change into a bird.”(19) As Boberg tells us, the transformation of the man to an animal or bird is a Northern European and later development in this tale, when the divinity of the male has been lost.(20) In order to turn her husband back to a human, she must serve him for seven years and a day, which she does as a laundry maid aided by the three feathers her husband has given her. The story also includes a common theft element; so where Psyche tries to steal the beauty Proserpina has given Venus, the wife defrauds the serving men she works with of their savings. In the theft motif, there may be a sense of some illicit appropriation taking place in the recording of the tale, most particularly in the created Apuleian fable where the narrator is part of a band of robbers.
Carl Schlam has described many of the symbolic significances of the book in his Cupid and Psyche: Apuleius and the Monuments. But by drawing together
some linguistic elements in Apuleius and relating them to the shape of The Golden Ass as a whole, I shall argue that an oblique approach best reveals the
devious synthesizing quality of his imagination. The method is parallel to that sketched by the contemporary Spanish writer, Julián Ríos. In Larva: Babel de una Noche de San Juan, Ríos envisages the Spanish language as “a larval mask beneath which other languages lurk,” while his book is “a motamorphose (word-metamorphosis).”(21) There is a cluster of words in Apuleius`s On the God of Socrates:
“Now of these lemures, the one who, undertaking the guardianship of his posterity, dwells in a house with propitious and tranquil influence, is called the
`familiar` Lar. But those who, having no fixed abode of their own, are punished with vague wandering, as with a kind of exile, on account of the evil deeds of
their life, are usually called `Larvae.`”(22)
Bearing in mind Psyche`s escape from her family and sisters in marrying Cupid, and taking `psyche` as soul including its manifestation as a butterfly on
the monuments,(23) a fourfold archetypal pattern can be discerned. Norman O.Brown has caught a related group:
“Larva means mask; or ghost. Larvatus, masked, a personality — larvatus prodeo (Descartes); it also means mad, a case of demonaical possession. Larva
is also `the immature form of animals characterized by metamorphosis`; in the grub state; before their transformation into a pupa, or pupil; i.e., before their initiation.”(24)
So there is a quadruple philological movement from ovum to larva, thence to pupa and finally psyche or butterfly, which is related to the spiral of education
and maturation in the human cycle. Brown tends to see this as both an educational and also a characteristically American (“initiation”) rite.
Apuleius`s tale of transformation is also one of conversion in four stages. Judith K. Krabbe has isolated a sequence of Books I-III which follow Lucius`s transmutation, Books IV-VI telling of Cupid and Psyche, Books VII-X revealing the darker perhaps chrysalitic stage in which indeed gold, chrusos,
becomes the main arbiter of Lucius`s destiny, followed by the regenerative Eleventh Book.(25) Although Apuleius has often been criticized for being more of a populariser than a philosopher , the fact is his instantaneous understanding of the process of individual growth and development surpasses that of his master, Plato, whose Phaedo he translated. Plato conceived a soul that was feathered,(26) but Apuleius envisaged the soul winged as a butterfly, whose form in evolution The Golden Ass as a whole mimics. (The centrality of mimicry among lepidoptera in the development of Wallace`s and Darwin`s theory of evolution,as well as its contemporary place in the writings of the lepidopterist Vladimir Nabokov, will be the subject of a later chapter.) We thrust back to the sixth century BCE and earlier when the soul was designated a butterfly even before it was personified.(27)
Within the context of `Cupid and Psyche,` it is upon the completion of her fourth task that Psyche earns the right to rejoin her husband. P.G. Walsh admits
that “there is something in the thesis of Reitzenstein...who compares eastern versions to propose that the visit to the underworld is not merely a fourth task but the organic close to the story, by which Psyche gains heaven.”(28) Four tasks appear in African folk-tales as compared to the more usual three and it is significant that salvation in the case of Apuleius`s middle demons, as he terms them, is so inextricably associated with the quaternal. Indeed this is, pari passu,repeated in Raphael`s scenes in the Farnesina cycle — the very cycle so pedantically recommended to Dorothea by Casaubon — where the six scenes of divine displeasure are succeeded by the four scenes of Psyche`s reinstatement and ascension. This swathe of numerical symmetry and complex linguistic inference lies behind Apuleius`s work and animates the totality. It ultimately opens up a concundrum in the sphere of Evolutionary Theory that literature and
the arts, rather than science, can help to resolve.
Joseph Conrad`s favourite reading was A.R. Wallace`s The Malay Archipelago, and Richard Curle remarked on the special place this contemporary theorist — “more Darwinian than Darwin himself”(29) — had in Conrad`s affection: “He had an intense admiration for those pioneer explorers — “profoundly inspired men” as he called them — who have left us a record of their work; and of Wallace, above all, he never ceased to speak in terms of enthusiasm.”(30) Although Wallace is not the model for Stein in Lord Jim as Florence Clemens would have it, nonetheless the sense of “the accuracy, the harmony,” and primarily “the beauty” of Stein`s collection of butterflies may well have arisen from Wallace`s exclamations at the splendour of Ornithoptera croesus when he felt fainter than when threatened with death, and from the rapture he felt at the “fresh and living beauty” of another of the large bird-winged butterflies.(31) It is clear, as Norman Sherry argues, that many details making up Stein came from Dr. Bernstein, Charles Allen (once a youthful assistant to Wallace), and Captain Lingard. But in regard to the light thrown on Jim`s life by Stein`s ruminations on lepidoptera`s interweaving with human life, Wallace is the central candidate for the thrust of this outlook. Moreover, the episode in which Jim is imprisoned in Patusan parallels Wallace`s confinement on entering the village of Coupang during his visit to Lombock and Bali, while the whole line of development of the novel follows the actions and experiences of Darwin`s co-founder of natural selection.(32) So Conrad has cast aspects of Wallace`s entomological bias as having a complex philosophical significance, a significance Darwin`s work lacked except in the negative sense as a shattering of religion.
Darwin notoriously lost his responsiveness to music and most literature as his life progressed. But Wallace always insisted that mathematical, musical and
artistic faculties intimated “the existence in man of something which has not derived from his animal progenitors...a spiritual essence or nature, capable of progressive development under favourable conditions.”(33) He seriously harmed his alternative cause through his excursions into spiritualism and such impossibilisms as the “projected development of spiritual beings capable of infinite life.”(34) And in his reading of Swedenborg, he enthusiastically marked a passage declaring that “it must be known that all spirits and angels without exception were once men, for the human race is the seminary of heaven...”(35) Nevertheless his concentration on insects, together with his insistence that the nature of the human brain lay in “the evasion of specialisation” suggest a more profound gulf than either Wallace or Darwin found it tactically opportune, in the light of the newness of the central theory and the opposition aroused, to admit between their views.(36) As I have said in another chapter, an approach that gives full weight to the part played by literature and the arts in the nature of humanity yields a view of the species as poised, or perhaps merely Bellow-like dangling, between animal and insect. While great ape ancestors are indisputable, the cultural evolution of the individual is better understood in terms of the life cycle of the metamorphic insects, a process that both masks its
future self — the root larva — and then destroys its former self in order to proceed to the next stage of growth. Wallace in fact opposed “the inclusion of
man`s psychical nature as a product of evolution,”(37) but this left him in his later quagmire. It can be said that the imagination persistently strives to assist the human species to understand its evolutionary position by seeking out its associative root, imago. In this the writings of Apuleius are a real advance not just on Plato, but also on Ovid`s Metamorphoses. For although the opening of Apuleius`s Metamorphoses literally echoes Ovid,(38) his vision of transformatory conversion surpasses his predecessor`s less organic conceptions. Here Pythagorean mathematics has been reanimated through a magical, or at least mysterious, refusion with nature`s processes.
1. Reitzenstein, 38 and 68ff.
2. Márquez, 112.
3. Rushdie, 301.
4. Eliot, 229.
5. Damon, 26.
6. Coburn (2), 4:5463. The Apuleian origin of the short story is proposed by
Ben Edwin Perry, 248 and 282.
7. Londey, 83.
8. Muir, 10.
9. Chénier, 647.
10. Apuleius (3), 354.
11. Apuleius (1), xxxviii.
12. Perry (2), 249.
13. Perry (2), 240.
14. Merkelbach, 89.
15. Wind, 237.
16. Fuentes, 182.
17. Moravia, 172.
18. Purser, liv. I should add that Purser opposed the allegorical interpretation of
Psyche as soul, just as Nabokov abhorred the symbolic transposition of
19. Briggs, 1:511.
20. Boberg, 1:216.
21. Levine, 182; Gautier, 185.
22. Apuleius (3), 364.
23. Schlam, 32.
24. Brown, 96-97.
25. Krabbe, 70
26. Plato, 487ff.
27. Immisch, 193. Without obstructing the continuity of my argument in the body of the text, a section of the Immisch is a crucial addition. “Als Gesichert wird vorausgesetzt, daB auch Seelenschmetterling eine Abart des sogenannten Seelenvogts ist, nicht als das einzige Insekt. Es steht also am Anfang etwas, was weit entfernt ist von dem ammutigen Elfentum der spätren Faltermädchen und was sonst von zierlicher Symbolik in Frage kommt. Seelenvögel sind ein unheimliches Gelichter.”
28. Walsh, 212-13.
29. Wallace (5), 2: 22.
30. quoted Sherry, 142.
31. The first two quotations are from Conrad, 208. The final one from
32. Further parallels are traced in Houston, 30-45.
33. Wallace (5), 2:474.
34. Wallace (5), 2:477.
35. Swedenborg (1), 12.
36. Eisley (1), 306.
37. Clodd, 134.
38. Krabbe, 43-44. Brooks Otis has controversially distinguished a quaternal plan in Ovid`s Metamorphoses. In Ovid as an Epic Poet (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1966), 83.